What is the James Webb Space Telescope 2023

What is the James Webb Space Telescope It is Complete information about the time machine made by humans, costing $10 billion.

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What is the James Webb

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), ( James Webb Space Telescope), is the largest infrared light-based space observatory in human history. And if we call it the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope, then there will be no wrong. Which is the most advanced type of telescope of the modern generation. Which was launched on  25 December 2021.

Whose real name was earlier ( NGST ), (Next Generation Space Telescope). Then what was the change is another name of nature and this name was amended and renamed again in the name of the former second Administrator of NASA ( James Edwin Webb ). James Edwin Webb was a very good administrator during his tenure. 

Who was born on 7 October 1996 and died on 27 March 1992? Joe led NASA from Kennedy to the Johnson Administration Time (1961–1967). Under his supervision, NASA scientists have done excellent work on many missions.

NASA also made many important successful launches, during whose tenure all the launches of Mercury under the Gemini program and the first manned Apollo flight, all this work was done under the supervision of (James Edwin Webb)

This man-made time machine (James Webb Space Telescope), whose main job is to observe distant elements in the universe, is today out of reach of the Hubble Telescope and other telescopes about 570 kilometers away from our Earth.

Where is James Webb Space Telescope located? (JWST) Live current location

So tell you the James Webb Space Telescope’s live location is currently about 1.5 million kilometers away from the Earth (L2 Point), currently present at Lagrange Point 2 which is revolving in its orbit. From where James Webb is sitting in the distant space.

Highlights of James Webb:-

  • Launch date: 25 December 2021
  • Cost: USD 1,000 crore (2016)
  • Dimensions: 20.197 m × 14.162 m (66.26 ft × 46.46 ft), sun-shield
  • Bandwidth: S-band up: 16 kbit/s; S-band down: 40 kbit/s; Ka-band down: 28 Mbit/s . until
  • Launch mass: 6,161.4 kg (13,584 lb)
  • Power: 2 kW
  • Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Ball Aerospace & Technologies
  • Launch vehicle:  Ariane 5 rocket
  • Location: ESA French Guiana

What is L2 Point (Lagrange point 2)?

By the way, if we talk about L2 Point ie (the Lagrange point), then first of all we have to understand what are the types of Lagrange points and what are their functions, after all why it was kept on the James Webb space telescope (Lagrange point 2).

At present, in our solar system (Lagrange point), there are five types named (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5).

But the functions and features of all these points are quite different. 

So let us explain to you through an example what is Lagrange point. 

Suppose we place an object between these two planets in a straight line from the Sun to the Earth, then you have to wonder what will happen to that object. Naturally, it turns out that the pull of that object will always be towards the Sun because the gravitational force of the Sun is many times greater than the gravitational force of the Earth, then it is obvious that it will be pulled towards the busy Sun as compared to the Earth…

 

In the same process, after placing an object between the Sun and the Earth, we move it slowly towards the Earth, then the gravitational force of the Earth on that object will increase. And the gravitational force of the Sun will decrease in the same proportion. 

And a situation will come where the pull of the gravitational force of the Earth on that object if the pull of the gravitational force of the Sun will become equal. And then that object will neither go towards the earth nor will it go towards the sun, it will stay at a particular point and from there it will start revolving around the sun along with the earth. which we call the Lagrange point.

The Lagrange point is named after the one who questioned the problem of three objects and since then this point has been named Lagrange point.

 

But this law does not stop only because many other forces work between the Sun and the Earth, as we all know that the Earth revolves around the Sun and when the Earth revolves in its orbit, then its rotation also creates frictional forces. And many other laws of gravity work, due to which the Lagrangian point is also formed on the horizontal position of the earth, which you can see in the pictures.

Following this rule, scientists have parked the James Webb Space Telescope at the L2 point, about 1.5 million kilometers away from the Earth. Where the Earth’s radius is present on the line where the James Webb Space Telescope is shielded from sunlight due to the Earth, but it is not such that the Sun’s light does not fall on the James Webb Space Telescope, but to a large extent because of the Earth. The Webb Space Telescope is shielded from sunlight. 

And the most important thing is that at the point at which the James Webb Space Telescope revolves in its orbit, the shadow of the Earth does not fall on the James Webb telescope at all and this is the reason that solar eclipses will be all but on the James Webb Space Telescope. There will never be an eclipse because the shadow of the earth does not fall on it.

The radius of the James Webb Space Telescope orbit around the L2 point is about 800,000 kilometers and due to the distance of this radius, the shadow of any part of the Earth on the James Webb Telescope does not fall on the James Webb Space Telescope.

What will the James Webb Space Telescope do in space?

  • James Webb Space Telescope will work to discover the first galaxy and 1 star.
  • The second task of Gent’s BP telescope will be to study the formation and evolution of galaxies.
  • Third, its main task will be to understand the formation of stars and planetary systems.
  • The fourth most important task will be to study the origin of life and planetary systems.
main ork of james webb telescpe

Friends, this was the James Webb Space Telescope, there are four main tasks, which have to be performed well after going to space, although when scientists send any mission, it is sent to do 100% work, due to some reason, there is a slight defect in the mission.

Because of the dust, that mission completes about 80% of its work safely, because after going to space, any mission is controlled by humans only with command, which is completely digital, no physical work of humans can be done in it. The work is done through science, it is done through frequency and signal.

And that is why it can be done more effectively in infrared light than visible light for in-depth analysis of all the four main tasks of the James Webb Space Telescope.

This is the biggest reason that the modern technology of the James Webb Space Telescope is such and has been made in such a way that its instruments will not be visible or ultraviolet measures like the Hubble Telescope, but it has collected a large amount of infrared light and expands that object. Its wavelength will be easily detected from this. 

All the instruments that were made before the Halo Kitchen Sweep were able to capture infrared light only from 0.6 to 7 micrometers. But the new technology of the James Webb Space Telescope has the ability to hold a truck from 0.6 to 28 micrometers, which it can hold even in 280 thyroid temperatures.

How will the James Webb Space Telescope discover the first galaxy and 1 star?

Friends, it is said that about 400 million years after the Big Bang, the universe was a very complex and dense structure. And at that time neither any galaxy had come into existence nor any star was born. And that’s why scientists want to know what really happened after the Big Bang. 

Scientists working on this mission believe that the James Webb Space Telescope will unravel this mystery and solve the mystery of the formation of the universe’s mysterious galaxies and stars.

It is said that when the universe originated before the Big Bang, there was a fragmentation of the fundamental link all around, like ( free electrons and protons ) only reigned in this whole universe. 

After this, a strange phenomenon happened in the universe and after about 4 lakh years as the temperature started falling, electrons and protons formed hydrogen by the mutual partnership in which (one electron + one proton) made it. Which we also call the process of recombination in scientific language. 

Then as soon as the electron and the proton met and became a photon, that is if we say then the light was born. And due to this drastic change in the universe, the opaque universe gradually started becoming transparent. That’s why this ‘era of recombination ‘ is the first point in our cosmological history in which we can look back with any form of light. The best example of the timeline of the universe is the cosmic summation spread around the universe that we can see today with the help of COBE and WMAP!

Although scientists believe that another major change in the universe took place in the formation of stars. Estimating from today’s scientific theory, it is known that for the first few million years before the supernova explosion, the stars that lived like fireballs were 30 times to 300 times larger than the Sun in their solar system and their luminosity is millions of times more than the Sun. The energized ultraviolet light of these stars was able to break the hydrogen atom into electrons and protons.

Far Quasar’s Characteristics ), a study of the far quasar’s spectral rule, suggests that the age of the universe at this time would probably be a billion years. (Re-ionization era), i.e. it is called the “re-ionization era”.

This was the era when most of the Hydrogen 1 star’s rising radiation was rooted out. “Re-ionization” is an important event in our cosmic history. By studying it, we get important information about the first stars. But scientists do not know exactly when and how the first star was formed. And when did the process of “re-ionization” begin?

It is believed that the evolution of the first star in cosmic history is the beginning of the Dark Ages, the last of the ‘dark ages. This period is recognized as the absence of a discrete source of light. That is why it is very important for us to understand these earlier sources because they greatly influenced the formation of giant bodies like galaxies that formed later. 

That is why the role of the first source of light is similar to that of the seed from which the giant bodies were formed later. And it may also be that the first stars collapsed from supernova-like explosions to become black holes, and this black hole swallowed up stars and gases to form a “small quasar ” that is a giant black hole that continues to grow, eating up galaxy planets. build-out. 

Which is found in the center of today’s galaxy. The James Webb Space Telescope will help us find answers to many important questions to unravel the structure of the universe. Like when and how did the re-ionization happen? What are the sources that were formed due to re-ionization? And the biggest question is what is the first galaxy? The James Webb Space Telescope will answer all these questions in its first major work.

James Webb Second main work How did galaxies form and develop?

If we understand the galaxies simply, then it is these small pieces of the universe that are in the number of millions of crores in the construction of a big house. And the investigation of many theories tells us that the Milky Way’s structure is a spectacular design.

If we see the complete picture of this universe, then we come to know that small objects must have been formed earlier in this universe and larger objects must have been formed by meeting these small objects. 

The same process can still be observed today (in the form of the merger of its own companions with the Milky Way and the growing Andromeda Nebula for a possible future collision of the Milky Way ).

Scientists say that through the James Webb Space Telescope, galaxies formed in the universe a billion years ago will be observed by going back east of the timeline.

However, then galaxies A will appear smaller and more irregular than the galaxies of today. While the shape of some galaxies is very similar to the present-day galaxies. This raises another big question in the minds of scientists.

Although scientists have done a lot of work regarding all these things, still no special results have been found, there are many such mysteries left that are yet to be solved. Scientists Say We Don’t Know How Galaxies Actually Formed? And who controls its size? And how are the stars formed inside it? And how do chemical processes start on those stars? 

How did these elements get distributed through the galaxies despite the central black hole having an effect on the entire galaxy? What is the global impact of explosive events such as amalgamation resulting from the collision of small and large objects? To find the answer to all these things, the world’s largest space telescope built by humans has been sent to the James Webb Space Telescope.

The third main task of JWST is to know the formation of stars and planetary systems.

Friends, the stars present in this infinite universe have been an important subject of astronomy for centuries. But now scientists have started understanding more things about stars with the help of detailed computer simulations. We humans did not even know 100 years ago from where a star gets so much energy. But in today’s time, with the help of a lot of efforts of scientists, we were able to know that the combustion power of a star comes from its nuclear fusion.

And only 50 years from now, we did not even know that stars keep on deteriorating for us and even today we humans do not know a lot about them, how stars are formed from clouds of gas and dust, and most of them Why do stars form in groups?  

We do not even have a detailed knowledge of how habitable planets are formed from them, what metals they develop and liberate and go back to space to rebuild the new generation of stars and planets. In many cases, these old stars also have a great influence on the formation process of stars.

Scientists’ observations and their discoveries tell us and a lot of research that tells us that most stars form in bi-stellar systems, and those stars have many planets, although the vast majority of discovered giant planets orbit their It is found very close to the stars and this is a very surprising thing.

We know that it is normal for planets to be found around stars that are slightly larger and slightly cooler than the Sun, but all the stars are formed around those stars. Planets are also formed like their planets around the Sun in our solar system and the same process is going on in the whole universe.

To know this in detail, the James Webb Space Telescope made by us humans was sent millions of kilometers away from Earth so that we can find out how stars are formed in the universe and how life on planets originates.

The last major task of JWST is the study of the origin of life and planetary systems.

Friends, the origin of the earth, and how life originated on the earth is a very important topics for scientists all over the world today. And to know its origin, it is very important to understand the formation of small bodies, how they combined to form the big planet and how the chemical-physical processes started on it. 

Knowing about the history of EC, the largest time machine made on Earth i.e. James Webb Space Telescope, being present about 1500000 kilometers away from the earth, will give us information about the chemical-physical history of all these Hindus.

This telescope will also find out how the chemicals important for life on Earth originated.

The James Webb Space Telescope also discovered how the other parts of our solar system were formed and how this solar system was formed where meteor bodies are also present around some planets.

Hubble Space Telescope James Webb Space Telescope compare 

If you compare the James Webb space telescope, which is called the successor of the Hubble space telescope, you will see the difference between the ground and the sky.

Hubble infrared and vigible light image

 Now to understand the difference between the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, look at this picture carefully, from this picture you will know how advanced the instruments in the James Webb Telescope are.

The picture of friends that you are seeing has been taken with the Harvel Space Telescope of a nebula named Karina and this picture has been taken in two different categories, one picture has been taken in visible light. 

The second picture has been taken in infrared light, now after seeing this picture, you will know what you are seeing in these pictures. If you look at the above picture first, after finding a cloud in it and some shape-like thing is visible which is made up of clouds. But nothing else is visible in the back part of it and if you are looking at the second picture, this picture is also a copy of the first picture. 

But the only difference is that it has been taken in infrared light, in the pictures you can clearly see thousands of circles of stars. With this, we come to know that if a telescope is based on infrared light, then the picture of this infinite universe taken by it will give us more information.

That is why the James Webb Space Telescope has been made the most advanced type of telescope of modern times based on infrared light. Through which we can see even beyond the clouds present in space, many 100 light years away. And through the James Webb Space Telescope, we can go back to the time when the Big Bang blast happened and the planets that were formed at that time.

And we can know all this information about the planets by going beyond time about their age and their formation. Friends, at the moment you will know about the Hubble Space Telescope. That the Hubble Space Telescope resides in the range of 570 km to 590 km outside the Earth. The same James Webb Space Telescope is orbiting the Earth’s radius about 1500000 kilometers away from the Earth and about 800000 kilometers from the L2 point.

Main Instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST Instruments)

  • Near Infrared camera (NIR-CAM) Near Infrared Camera.
  • Near-infrared spectrograph (NIRSpec) Near-infrared spectrograph.
  • Mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) Mid-infrared instrument.
  • Near-infrared imager and slitless spectrograph (NIRISS) Near-infrared imager and slitless spectrograph.

Near-infrared spectrograph (NIRSpec)

The Near Infrared Camera was a very special and special form of the James Webb Space Telescope. This near-infrared camera is capable of low-resolution to high-resolution spectroscopy observations.

The Near Infrared Camera has been built under the project ie Project of the European Space Company and the EASTEC James Webb Space Telescope of the Netherlands.

Mid-infrared instrument.

Friends, this Mead Infrared Instrument starts working when the temperature of the James Webb Space Telescope drops below (-266) degrees.

So let’s understand what is the biggest feature of this device. MIRI works to keep James Webb’s brain cool and G works to cool the James Webb Space Telescope’s brain by radiating thermal energy present in space. In fact, all the telescopes that are sent into space are equipped with an air conditioner which keeps their machines cool at 24, 39 Kelvin.

miri

 

At the same time, this MIRI is not just an air conditioner installed in James Webb, but it is a (super air-conditioner) that protects the James Webb Space Telescope from the radiation present in space and the heat of the sun. And it works to keep James Webb cool by using the heat of the sun itself, if scientists are to be believed, then the scientists have given the name of the cryocooler.

Although there are many instruments and technology with the James Webb Space Telescope, through which it can cool down to 15 Kelvin by releasing helium gas when it needs colder. Then the work of MIRI begins there. Because it has been designed in such a special way.

Do instruct the cryocooler. That too you now cool it down to -266 degrees and after it cools down, MIRI starts its work. This MIRI and Cryocooler are fully maintained by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

And help in its work NASA Goddard Flight Center, Johnson Space Flight Center, and Space Science Telescope Institute, all these scientists keep an eye on every movement of the James Webb Space Telescope. Which instruments are performing and how?

However (MIRI) MID Infrared Spectrograph, there are four coronagraphs, which have a very special function. come.

Apart from this, a lot of energy is released either from stars like the sun. And because of that, it is observed in the Chronograph of the James Webb Space Telescope, in which the Chronograph installed in MIRI plays an important role. So, overall, there is a part of the James Webb Space Telescope which is the most important.

 

Near-infrared imager and slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)

Near Infrared Imager And Slitless Spectrograph

(NIRISS), this is one such instrument, fitted with the James Webb Space Telescope. This is not for the crowded area, that is to say, it has been made to know and understand the celestial bodies of the small area. If we say in space, it does a very spectacular lamp in less populated areas. Because when it observes the less populated area, then it understands every single point i.e. every single object in a good way. And that is its job. Whose G captures the image from high-resolution to low-resolution.

Near infrared imager and slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)

James Webb space telescope (Main Mirrors) Hexagon Mirrors

James Webb Space Telescope  Hexagon Mirrors Which is the most important part of this telescope This mirror installed in the Webb telescope has a mirror of (1.3) meters, the weight of one of its mirrors is about 20 kg and this James Webb Space Telescope has 18 such mirrors. There are mirrors, in which mainly beryllium metal has been used. 

One of its mirrors has also been plated with about 48 grams of gold, which can be easily taken to take a picture of any object and its clarity, which is why the gold plate has been mounted on this James Webb Space Telescope.

This hexagon mirror is the main part of this Webb telescope, above these mirrors, the distant galaxies in the universe, stars, and all the space information will be captured. 

Through the James Webb Telescope, eighteen different pictures of space will be taken on its eighteen mirrors, which will be combined by the scientists to make a complete picture, that is, after aligning these eighteen hexagon mirrors to make a great picture, the scientists will see the whole world. Will present what will be the first success of James Webb.

The James Webb Space Telescope is the biggest hope of modern science, which will go back in time to find the distant galaxies and stars in the universe that were made of the Big Bang. That is, about 13 billion years ago from today, there will be a galaxy by going back in time and will look at the stars which were very young, what was the condition of their formation, how they were formed, and how the stars are formed and how the necessary elements are formed on them. To know all these features, this James Webb Space Telescope has been deployed 1500000 km away from the Earth.

And to see all these distant events in space, 1 mirror is also needed in Hubble Space Telescope like James Webb Space Telescope, but if James Webb Space Telescope also has the same mirror then there is some difference between Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Telescope. does not live.

That is why scientists put more mirrors in it to see the space more deeply and clearly and scientists believe. That the more mirrors i.e. the greater the area of ​​that mirror, the more we can capture the unheard mysteries of the universe and understand those riddles. Which we do not face today.

But the biggest problem with the scientists was that till now no telescope with such a large mirror had been taken in space. Scientists had only one option to take such a large telescope into space, the mirror of this telescope should be stronger than strong and very light in weight.

That is why scientists used beryllium (Be) to make its mirror. Beryllium is a metal that is lightweight as well as strong enough to make many of the main tasks of the James Webb Space Telescope easier.

Beryllium maintains its shape balanced even in different temperatures when it strikes a good balance between electricity and temperature, and the most important thing is that it does not have magnetic properties, that is, no magnets work on it.

But now after the construction of such a large telescope, another big problem has arisen with the scientists, how will this large telescope be fitted in its launch vehicle? Because such a large mirror cannot fit in that vehicle and we can open it to space. I can’t take it.

To solve this problem, scientists thought of an idea why not make this James Webb Space Telescope foldable, so that it will easily fit in its launch vehicle by turning CG and after launch, it should be opened one step in space. . And it will go to the L2 point successfully, avoiding the asteroid space and small stone devices, going millions of kilometers away from the earth.

By the way, if we talk the mirror of the Hubble Space Telescope, then its mirror is (2.4) meters. Which is the only one.

Why is the camera not installed in the James Webb Space Telescope?

Why was the James Webb Space Telescope Camera not installed? This begs the big question of why after all why not put a small camera in such a large space telescope? But there are many big reasons for not installing cameras on the James Webb Space Telescope, although everyone wanted to see how the James Webb Space Telescope unfolds in space, this question remained a question.

We could not see the real pictures of this James Webb telescope unfolding, although scientists have told us why they did not put the camera on the James Webb telescope. Scientists told that the easier it seems to think about the camera, the more complicated it is to put it. Although the James Webb Space Telescope is a very large space telescope. And putting a small plastic camera on it would have been a very difficult task.

Because one part of this telescope is always in darkness and one part is always in sunlight and sunlight generates so much heat there that these plastic cameras cannot stand there nor the plastic rubber that binds it.

There were many other reasons for not installing cameras in the James Webb Space Telescope, the biggest reason was that if the camera had been installed on James B, the photo of the dark part could not be taken with the camera and the other part was taken from the camera due to more light. The reflection of the photo would have gone here and there due to more light and that photo could not be clearly visible.

Also, if cameras were installed on the James Webb Space Telescope, then a lot of stars would have to be installed for each camera and due to those stars, a lot of heat would also be generated in this telescope, companion those stars also generate vibrations James Webb Space Telescope The first thing that is needed to take a snake and the big picture is that its temperature should be at least (7 Kelvin) i.e. -266 ° C.

Which countries together made the James Webb Space Telescope?

If outside the James Webb Space Telescope partnership, then NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), are the main hand in this and have also been each other’s biggest collaborators. The European Space Agency’s participation in the construction and launch of the European Space Agency began in 2003 when scientists began work on the James Webb Space Telescope, and in 2007 an agreement was reached between the European Space Agency and NASA.

And the deal stipulated that in exchange for their participation, representation, and use of telescopes for astrophysicists, the European Space Agency’s (MIRI) spectrograph, the optical bench assembly, the Ariane-5 ECA launcher, and the Expedition Area ECE and Expedition The Canadian Space Agency will provide manpower to support the Fine Guidance Sensor and Infrared Images TELIS Spectrograph Together with their scientists to support the mission, although the mission is partnered with about 20 countries

Conclusion: Friends, I (Gautam Prajapati) have tried to explain and explain everything about James Webb Space Telescope to all of you through this post, there is hardly anything that is missing in it if you think that there is something in it. If you are missing any information, then you will definitely tell us by writing in the comment and if you like this article, then definitely share it with your friends. Thank you!

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) Frequently asked questions.

When and where was the James Webb Telescope launched?

On 25 December 2021, James Webb was launched from the French Guiana Space Station and Ariane 5 rocket.

How long did it take James Webb to make?

James Webb took about 30 years to make. whose bar disposition had been postponed.

How much does James Webb cost in total?

USD 1,000 crores are approximately 10 thousand crores of Indian rupees.

When will the first James Webb photo come out?

The first photo of James Webb will come on 12th July 2022 which will be in front of the whole world and you will get to see it first on our website.

How much gold is embedded in the James Webb Space Telescope?

A mirror in the James Webb Space Telescope has been plated with 48gm gold so that the images can be captured clearly.

How many mirrors does James Webb have?

James Webb Telescope has 1 mirror of 1.3 meters and 18 such mirrors have been installed in the weight of one mirror is 20kg.

How much gold is contained in the James Webb Space Telescope?

By the way, a mirror of Jan Sweet has been plated on 48 grams of gold and in such a way there are eighteen mirrors in which in total so much gold has been installed.

How long will the James Webb Space Telescope work in space?

The James Webb Space Telescope has been refueled by scientists in such a way that it can work comfortably for at least 10 years, but it has enough fuel that it can work for 20 years.

What metal are the mirrors of the James Webb Space Telescope made of?

The mirrors of the James Webb Telescope are made of beryllium metal.

How far is the James Webb Space Telescope from Earth?

The James Webb Telescope is located at Jalandhar points today, about 150000 km from the earth.

What is L2 Point, (Lagrange point 2)?

Lagrange point 2 is such a place in space where the Sun Earth and Lagrange point 2 is a third such place where no special gravitational force is able to act on anybody so that any third object at that point works by remaining stationary. Can do.

How many Lagrangian points are there in the solar system?

There are a total of 5 L2 points (Lagrange point 2) in our solar system, whose names are L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5.

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